19 May 2021 - French Institute, Florence, Italy.
In order to modernize and balance the territories and to improve public health, Napoleon Bonaparte reorganized the practice of pharmacy. The inventory of pharmacies, professional organizations, training, recruitment and inspection of pharmacists were imposed by the State. Compendial preparations, in which chemistry plays an increasingly important role, must be prepared according to the formulas listed in a Codex, the only national reference. More than 200 years ago, the first vaccination campaign against smallpox took place in Tuscany, under the impulse of Napoleon's sister, Elisa Bonaparte Baciocchi.